Over time, I hope to fill out this page with a collection of essays touching on the philosophical underpinnings of science. For now, here is something to start with.
Do You "Believe" in Evolution? (12-17-2009)
The Nature of Science: Antirealism is Not Postmodernism (1-3-2008)
Puzzling Over Science (4-5-2006)
Defining Science (1-31-2006)
Here are some links to a few of the many good essays on the subject written by a wide variety of scientists and philosophers (more links to come).
The website of my friend John Mays, who thinks constantly about how to teach kids science and math: