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The following list contains published papers authored, or co-authored, by Chris A. Mack as of April 2015 (date ordered with oldest first). Click on the title to download a pdf of the paper.

- Chris A. Mack, “PROLITH: A Comprehensive Optical Lithography Model”,
*Optical Microlithography IV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 538 (1985) pp. 207-220. - Chris A. Mack and R. T. Carback, “Modeling the Effects of Prebake on Positive Resist Processing”,
*Kodak Microelectronics Seminar, Interface ’85, Proc.*, (1985) pp. 155-158. - Chris A. Mack, “Advanced Topics in Lithography Modeling”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing III, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 631 (1986) pp. 276-285. - Chris A. Mack, “Analytical Expression for the Standing Wave Intensity in Photoresist”,
*Applied Optics*, Vol. 25, No. 12 (15 June 1986) pp. 1958-1961. - Chris A. Mack, A. Stephanakis, R. Hershel, “Lumped Parameter Model of the Photolithographic Process”,
*Kodak Microelectronics Seminar, Interface ’86, Proc.*, (1986) pp. 228-238. - Chris A. Mack, “Development of Positive Photoresists”,
*Journal of the Electrochemical Society*, Vol. 134, No. 1 (Jan. 1987) pp. 148-152. - Chris A. Mack, “Contrast Enhancement Techniques for Submicron Optical Lithography”,
*Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology*, Vol. A5, No. 4 (Jul./Aug. 1987) pp. 1428-1431. - Chris A. Mack, “Photoresist Process Optimization”,
*KTI Microelectronics Seminar, Interface ’87, Proc.*, (1987) pp. 153-167. - Chris A. Mack, “Dispelling the Myths about Dyed Photoresist”,
*Solid**State**Technology*, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Jan. 1988) pp. 125-130. - T. Brown and Chris A. Mack, “Comparison of Modeling and Experimental Results in Contrast Enhancement Lithography”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing V, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 920 (1988) pp. 390-403. - Chris A. Mack, “Understanding Focus Effects in Submicron Optical Lithography”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 922 (1988) pp. 135-148, and*Optical Engineering*, Vol. 27, No. 12 (Dec. 1988) pp. 1093-1100. - Chris A. Mack, “Absorption and Exposure in Positive Photoresist”,
*Applied Optics*, Vol. 27, No. 23 (1 Dec. 1988) pp. 4913-4919. - Chris A. Mack and P. M. Kaufman, “Mask Bias in Submicron Optical Lithography”,
*Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology*, Vol. B6, No. 6 (Nov./Dec. 1988) pp. 2213-2220. - D. H. Ziger and Chris A. Mack, “Lithographic Characterization of a Rapid Ammonia Catalyzed Image Reversal Process”,
*KTI Microelectronics Seminar, Interface ’88, Proc.*, (1988) pp. 165-175. - Chris A. Mack and P. M. Kaufman, “Understanding Focus Effects in Submicron Optical Lithography, part 2: Photoresist effects”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography II, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1088 (1989) pp. 304-323. - Chris A. Mack and P. M. Kaufman, “Focus Effects in Submicron Optical Lithography, Optical and Photoresist Effects”,
*The International Congress on Optical Science & Engineering*, Proc., Paris, France, SPIE Vol. 1138 (1989) pp. 88-105. - Chris A. Mack, “Optimum Stepper Performance Through Image Manipulation”,
*KTI Microelectronics Seminar, Interface ’89, Proc.*, (1989) pp. 209-215. - Chris A. Mack, “Algorithm for Optimizing Stepper Performance Through Image Manipulation”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography III, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1264 (1990) pp. 71-82. - Chris A. Mack, “Lithographic Optimization Using Photoresist Contrast”,
*KTI Microlithography Seminar, Interface ’90, Proc.*, (1990) pp. 1-12, and*Microelectronics Manufacturing Technology*, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Jan. 1991) pp. 36-42. - P. Trefonas and Chris A. Mack, “Exposure Dose Optimization for a Positive Resist Containing Poly-functional Photoactive Compound”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing VIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1466 (1991) pp. 117-131. - D. Ziger, Chris A. Mack, and R. Distasio, “The Generalized Characteristic Model for Lithography: Application to Negative Chemically Amplified Resists”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing VIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1466 (1991) pp. 270-282, and*Optical Engineering*, Vol. 31, No. 1 (1 Jan 1992) pp.98-104. - Chris A. Mack, “Fundamental Issues in Phase-Shifting Mask Technology”,
*KTI Microlithography Seminar, Interface ’91, Proc.*, (1991) pp. 23-35. - D. H. Ziger and Chris A. Mack, “Generalized Approach toward Modeling Resist Performance”,
*AICHE Journal*, Vol. 37, No. 12 (Dec 1991) pp. 1863-1874. - Chris A. Mack, E. Capsuto, S. Sethi, and J. Witowski, “Modeling and Characterization of a 0.5μm Deep Ultraviolet Process”,
*Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology*, Vol. B 9, No. 6 (Nov / Dec 1991) pp. 3143-3149. - M. A. Toukhy, S. G. Hansen, R. J. Hurditch, and Chris A. Mack, “Experimental Investigation of a Novel Dissolution Model”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing IX, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1672 (1992) pp. 286-296. - Chris A. Mack, “Understanding Focus Effects in Submicron Optical Lithography, part 3: Methods for Depth-of-Focus Improvement”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography V, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1674 (1992) pp. 272-284. - Chris A. Mack and J. E. Connors, “Fundamental Differences Between Positive and Negative Tone Imaging”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography V, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1674 (1992) pp. 328-338, and*Microlithography World*, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Jul/Aug 1992) pp. 17-22. - D. W. Johnson and Chris A. Mack, “I-line, DUV, VUV, or X-Ray?”
*Optical/Laser Microlithography V, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1674 (1992) pp. 486-498, and “Modeling the Continuing Realm of Optical Lithography”,*Semiconductor International*, Vol. 15, No. 6 (June 1992) pp. 134-139. - Chris A. Mack, “New Kinetic Model for Resist Dissolution”,
*Journal of the Electrochemical Society*, Vol. 139, No. 4 (Apr. 1992) pp. L35-L37. - Chris A. Mack, “Simple Method for Rim Shifter Design: The Biased Self-Aligned Rim Shifter”,
*12th Annual BACUS Symposium, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1809 (1992) pp. 229-236. - N. Thane, Chris A. Mack, and S. Sethi, “Lithographic Effects of Metal Reflectivity Variations”,
*Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1926 (1993) pp. 483-494. - Chris A. Mack, “Phase Contrast Lithography”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography VI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1927 (1993) pp. 512-520. - Chris A. Mack, “Optimization of the Spatial Properties of Illumination”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography VI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 1927 (1993) pp. 125-136. - P. M. Mahoney and Chris A. Mack, “Cost Analysis of Lithographic Characterization: An Overview”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography VI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol.1927 (1993) pp. 827-832. - Chris A. Mack, “Designing the Ultimate Photoresist”,
*OCG Microlithography Seminar, Interface ’93, Proc.*, (1993) pp. 175-191. - G. E. Flores, W. W. Flack, E. Tai, and Chris A. Mack, “Lithographic Performance in Thick Photoresist Applications”,
*OCG Microlithography Seminar, Interface ’93, Proc.*, (1993) pp. 41-60. - Chris A. Mack, “Understanding Focus Effects in Submicrometer Optical Lithography: a Review”,
*Optical Engineering*, Vol. 32, No. 10 (Oct. 1993) pp. 2350-2362. - Chris A. Mack, D. P. DeWitt, B. K. Tsai, and G. Yetter, “Modeling of Solvent Evaporation Effects for Hot Plate Baking of Photoresist”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2195 (1994) pp. 584-595. - D. P. DeWitt, T. C. Niemoeller, Chris A. Mack, and G. Yetter, “Thermal Design Methodology of Hot and Chill Plates for Photolithography”,
*Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control VIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2196 (1994) pp. 432-448. - Chris A. Mack, “Enhanced Lumped Parameter Model for Photolithography”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2197 (1994) pp. 501-510. - Chris A. Mack and E. W. Charrier, “Yield Modeling for Photolithography”,
*OCG Microlithography Seminar, Interface ’94, Proc.*, (1994) pp. 171-182. - J. S. Petersen, Chris A. Mack, J. W. Thackeray, R. Sinta, T. H. Fedynyshyn, J. M. Mori, J. D. Myers and D. A. Miller, “Characterization and Modeling of a Positive Acting Chemically Amplified Resist”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2438 (1995) pp. 153-166. - J. S. Petersen, Chris A. Mack, J. Sturtevant, J. D. Byers and D. A. Miller, “Non-constant Diffusion Coefficients: Short Description of Modeling and Comparison to Experimental Results”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2438 (1995) pp. 167-180. - E. W. Charrier and Chris A. Mack, “Yield Modeling and Enhancement for Optical Lithography”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography VIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2440 (1995) pp. 435-447. - Chris A. Mack, “Focus Effects in Submicron Optical Lithography, Part 4: Metrics for Depth of Focus”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography VIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2440 (1995) pp. 458-471. - Chris A. Mack and C-B. Juang, “Comparison of Scalar and Vector Modeling of Image Formation in Photoresist”,
*Optical/Laser Microlithography VIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2440 (1995) pp. 381-394. - E. W. Charrier, C. J. Progler and Chris A. Mack, “Comparison of Simulated and Experimental CD-Limited Yield for a Submicron I-Line Process”,
*Microelectronic Manufacturing Yield, Reliability, and Failure Analysis, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2635 (1995) pp. 84-94, and*Solid State Technology*, Vol. 38, No. 11 (Nov. 1995) pp. 105-112. - Chris A. Mack, “Lithographic Effects of Acid Diffusion in Chemically Amplified Resists”,
*OCG Microlithography Seminar Interface ‘95, Proc.*, (1995) pp. 217-228, and Microelectronics Technology: Polymers for Advanced Imaging and Packaging, ACS Symposium Series 614, E. Reichmanis, C. Ober, S. MacDonald, T. Iwayanagi, and T. Nishikubo, eds., ACS Press (Washington: 1995) pp. 56-68. - Chris A. Mack, T. Matsuzawa, A. Sekiguchi, Y. Minami, “Resist Metrology for Lithography Simulation, Part 1: Exposure Parameter Measurements”,
*Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2725 (1996) pp. 34-48. - A. Sekiguchi, Chris A. Mack, Y. Minami, T. Matsuzawa, “Resist Metrology for Lithography Simulation, Part 2: Development Parameter Measurements”,
*Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2725 (1996) pp. 49-63. - S. H. Thornton and Chris A. Mack, “Lithography Model Tuning: Matching Simulation to Experiment”,
*Optical Microlithography IX, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2726 (1996) pp. 223-235. - Chris A. Mack, “Evaluation of Proximity Effects Using Three-Dimensional Optical Lithography Simulation”,
*Optical Microlithography IX, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 2726 (1996) pp. 634-639, and “Evaluating Proximity Effects Using 3-D Optical Lithography Simulation”,*Semiconductor International*(July, 1996) pp. 237-242. - Chris A. Mack, “Trends in Optical Lithography”,
*Optics and Photonics News*(April, 1996) pp. 29-33. - Chris A. Mack, G. E. Flores, W. W. Flack, and E. Tai, “Lithographic Modeling Speeds Thin-Film-Head Development”,
*Data Storage*(May/June, 1996) pp. 55-58. - Chris A. Mack, “Reducing Proximity Effects in Optical Lithography”,
*Olin Microlithography Seminar Interface ‘96, Proc.*, (1996) pp. 325-336, and*Japanese Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 35 (1996) pp. 6379-6385. - Chris A. Mack, “Three-Dimensional Electron Beam Lithography Simulation”,
*Emerging Lithographic Technologies, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3048 (1997) pp. 76-88. - G. Arthur, Chris A. Mack, B. Martin, “Enhancing the Development Rate Model For Optimum Simulation Capability in the Sub-Half-Micron Regime”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3049 (1997) pp. 189-200. - Chris A. Mack, K.E. Mueller, A.B. Gardiner, A. Qiu, R.R. Dammel, W.G. Koros, C.G. Willson, “Diffusivity Measurements in Polymers, Part 1: Lithographic Modeling Results”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3049 (1997) pp. 355-362. - Allen B. Gardiner, Anwei Qin, Clifford L. Henderson, William J. Koros, C. Grant Willson, Ralph R. Dammel, Chris A. Mack, William D. Hinsberg, “Diffusivity Measurements in Polymers, Part 2: Residual Casting Solvent Measurement by Liquid Scintillation Counting”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3049 (1997) pp. 850-860. - Katherine E. Mueller, William J. Koros, Chris A. Mack, C.G. Willson, “Diffusivity Measurements in Polymers, Part 4: Acid Diffusion in Chemically Amplified Resists”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3049 (1997) pp. 706-711. - Edward Charrier, Chris A. Mack, Q. Zuo, M. Maslow, “Methodology for Utilizing CD Distributions for Optimization of Lithographic Processes”,
*Optical Microlithography X, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3051 (1997) pp. 541-551. - Mark E. Mason, Robert A. Soper, R. Mark Terry, and Chris A. Mack, “Process-Specific Tuning Of Lithography Simulation Tools”,
*Optical Microlithography X, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3051 (1997) pp. 491-498. - Chris A. Mack, “Resolution and Depth of Focus in Optical Lithography”,
*Microlithographic Techniques in IC Fabrication, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3183 (1997) pp. 14-27. - Chris A. Mack, “Electron Beam Lithography Simulation for Mask Making, Part I”,
*17th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3236 (1997) pp. 216-227. - C. Sauer, D. Alexander and Chris A. Mack, “Electron Beam Lithography Simulation for Mask Making, Part II: Comparison of the Lithographic Performance of PBS and EBR900-M1”,
*17th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3236 (1997) pp. 413-423. - R. F. Hollman and Chris A. Mack, “Accuracy of 3-D Optical Lithography Simulation for Advanced Reticles”,
*17th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3236 (1997) pp. 424-429. - G. Arthur, Chris A. Mack, and B. Martin, “A New Development Model for Lithography Simulation”,
*Olin Microlithography Seminar Interface ‘97, Proc.*, (1997) pp. 55-66. - Chris A. Mack, M. J. Maslow, R. Carpio, and A. Sekiguchi, “Impact of Developer Temperature on Dissolution Behavior”,
*Olin Microlithography Seminar, Interface ‘97, Proc.*, (1997) pp. 203-212. - R. R. Dammel, J. P. Sagan, E. Kokinda, N. Eilbeck, Chris A. Mack, G. G. Arthur, C. L. Henderson, S. A. Scheer, B. M. Rathsack, and C. G. Willson, “Improved Simulation of Photoresists Using New Development Models”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3333 (1998) pp. 401-416. - Chris A. Mack, M. J. Maslow, R. Carpio, and A. Sekiguchi, “New Model for the Effect of Developer Temperature on Photoresist Dissolution”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3333 (1998) pp. 1218-1231. - R. Gordon and Chris A. Mack, “Lithography Simulation Employing Rigorous Solutions to Maxwell’s Equations at the Mask”,
*Optical Microlithography XI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3334 (1998) pp. 176-196. - Chris A. Mack and G. Arthur, “Notch Model for Photoresist Dissolution”,
*Electrochemical and Solid State Letters*, Vol. 1, No. 2, (August, 1998) pp. 86-87. - Chris A. Mack, K. E. Mueller, A. B. Gardiner, J. P. Sagan, R. R. Dammel, and C. G. Willson, “Modeling Solvent Diffusion in Photoresist”,
*Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology*, Vol. B16, No. 6, (Nov., 1998) pp. 3779-3783. - J. Oey, P. Mack, and Chris A. Mack, “Metal Layer Process Characterization: Statistical and Computational Methods for Handling, Interpreting and Reacting to In-Line Critical Dimension Information”,
*In-line Characterization Techniques for Performance and Yield Enhancement in Microelectronic Manufacturing II, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3509 (1998) pp. 164-178. - Chris A. Mack, “Electron Beam Lithography Simulation for Mask Making, Part III: Effect of Spot Size, Address Grid and Raster Writing Strategies on Lithography Performance with PBS and ZEP-7000”,
*18th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3546 (1998) pp. 32-44. - R. L. Gordon, Chris A. Mack, J. S. Petersen, “Design and Analysis of Manufacturable Alternating Phase-shifting Masks”,
*18th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3546 (1998) pp. 606-616. - John S. Petersen, Martin McCallum, Nishrin Kachwala, Robert J. Socha, J. Fung Chen, Thomas L. Laidig, Bruce W. Smith, Ronald L. Gordon, and Chris A. Mack, “Assessment of a Hypothetical Roadmap That Extends Optical Lithography Through the 70-nm Technology Node”,
*18 th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3546 (1998) pp. 288-303. - Chris A. Mack, D. A. Legband, S. Jug, “Data Analysis for Photolithography”
*Micro- and Nano-Engineering 98, Proc.*, and*MicroElectronic Engineering*, Vol. 46, Issues 1-4 (May 1999) pp. 65-68. - Chris A. Mack, “Electron Beam Lithography Simulation for Mask Making”
*Micro- and Nano-Engineering 98, Proc.*, and*MicroElectronic Engineering*, Vol. 46, Issues 1-4 (May 1999) pp. 283-286. - R. L. Gordon and Chris A. Mack, “Mask Topography Simulation for EUV Lithography”,
*Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3676 (1999) pp. 283-297. - Chris A. Mack, S. Jug, D. A. Legband, “Data Analysis for Photolithography”,
*Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3677 (1999) pp. 415-434. - A. Sekiguchi, Chris A. Mack, M. Isono, T. Matsuzawa, “Measurement of Parameters for Simulation of Deep UV Lithography Using a FT-IR Baking System”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3678 (1999) pp. 985-1000. - M. J. Maslow, Chris A. Mack, J. Byers, “Effect of Developer Temperature and Normality on Chemically Amplified Photoresist Dissolution”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3678 (1999) pp. 1001-1011. - T. H. Fedynyshyn, S. P. Doran, and Chris A. Mack, “A FT-IR Method to Determine Dill’s C Parameter for DNQ/Novolac Resists with E-beam and I-line Exposure”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3678 (1999) pp. 1263-1272. - J. Sturtevant, B. Ho, K. Lucas, J. Petersen, Chris A. Mack, E. Charrier, B. Peterson, N. Koshiba, G. Barnes, “Considerations for the Use of Application-Specific Photoresists”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3678 (1999) pp. 402-410. - Chris A. Mack, M. Ercken, M. Moelants, “Matching Simulation and Experiment for Chemically Amplified Resists”,
*Optical Microlithography XII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3679 (1999) pp. 183-192. - F. M. Schellenberg, V. Boksha, N. Cobb, J. C. Lai, C. H. Chen, Chris A. Mack, “Impact of Mask Errors on Full Chip Error Budgets”,
*Optical Microlithography XII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3679 (1999) pp. 261-276. - Chris A. Mack, M. J. Maslow, J. Byers, “Effect of Developer Temperature and Normality on Conventional and Chemically Amplified Photoresist Dissolution”,
*Lithography for Semiconductor Manufacturing, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3741 (1999) pp. 148-160. - C. Sauer and Chris A. Mack, “Electron Beam Lithography Simulation for Mask Making, Part IV: Effect of Resist Contrast on Isofocal Dose”,
*Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology VI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3748 (1999) pp. 27-40. - Chris A. Mack and C. Sauer, “Electron Beam Lithography Simulation for Mask Making, Part V: Impact of GHOST proximity effect correction on process window”,
*19th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management*,*Proc*., SPIE Vol. 3873 (1999) pp. 2-20. - F. M. Schellenberg and Chris A. Mack, “MEEF in Theory and Practice”,
*19th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management*,*Proc*., SPIE Vol. 3873 (1999) pp. 189-202. - Chris A. Mack and F. M. Schellenberg, “Impact of Mask Errors on Optical Lithography”,
*Arch Microlithography Symposium, Interface ‘99, Proc.*, (1999) pp. 75-84. - Chris A. Mack and F. M. Schellenberg, “Impact of Mask Errors on Optical Lithography”,
*Yield Management Solutions*, Spring 2000, pp. 58-62. - Chris A. Mack, “Modeling of Projection Electron Lithography”,
*Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3997 (2000) pp. 245-254. - A. Kroyan, J. Bendik, O. Semprez, N. Farrar, C. Rowan, Chris A. Mack, “Modeling the Effects of Excimer Laser Bandwidths on Lithographic Performance”,
*Optical Microlithography XIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4000 (2000) pp. 658-664. - Chris A. Mack, “Analytic Approach to Understanding the Impact of Mask Errors on Optical Lithography”,
*Optical Microlithography XIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4000 (2000) pp. 215-227. - A. Sekiguchi, M. Kadoi, Y. Miyake, T. Matsuzawa, and Chris A. Mack, “Development of Analysis System for F 2-Excimer Laser Photochemical Processes”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 3999 (2000) pp. 395-412. - S. Weaver, M. Lu, J. Chabala, D. Ton, C. Sauer, and Chris A. Mack, “Lithography Performance of Contact Holes - Part I: Optimization of Pattern Fidelity Using MPG and MPG-II”,
*Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology VII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4066 (2000) pp. 160-171. - Chris A. Mack, C. Sauer, S. Weaver, and J. Chabala, “Lithography Performance of Contact Holes - Part II: Simulation of the Effects of Reticle Corner Rounding on Wafer Print Performance”,
*Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology VII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4066 (2000) pp. 172-179. - I. Yu. Kuzmin and Chris A. Mack, “Comprehensive Simulation of E-beam Lithography Processes Using PROLITH/3D and Temptation Software Tools”,
*20th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology*,*Proc*., SPIE Vol. 4186 (2000) pp. 503-507. - M. D. Levenson, J. S. Petersen, D. G. Gerold, Chris A. Mack, “Phase Phirst! An Improved Strong-PSM Paradigm”,
*20th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology*,*Proc*., SPIE Vol. 4186 (2000) pp. 395-404. - Chris A. Mack, “Impact of Reticle Corner Rounding on Wafer Print Performance”,
*Arch Microlithography Symposium, Interface 2000, Proc.*, (2000) pp. 91-101. - Chris A. Mack, “Corner Rounding and Line-end Shortening in Optical Lithography”,
*Microlithographic Techniques in Integrated Circuit Fabrication II, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4226 (2000) pp. 83-92. - M. Pochkowski, Chris A. Mack, and B. S. Kasprowicz, “Application of Critical Shape Analyses to Two Dimensional Patterns”,
*Metrology, Inspection and Process Control XV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4344 (2001) pp. 169-176. - Chris A. Mack, S. Jug, R. Jones, P. Apte, S. Williams, and M. Pochkowski, “Metrology and Analysis of Two Dimensional SEM Patterns”,
*Metrology, Inspection and Process Control XV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4344 (2001) pp. 377-384. - J. Allgair, M. Ivy, K. Lucas, J. Sturtevant, R. Elliott, Chris A. Mack, C. MacNaughton, J. Miller, M. Pochkowski, M. Preil, J. Robinson, and F. Santos, “Characterization of Optical Proximity Correction Features”,
*Metrology, Inspection and Process Control XV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4344 (2001) pp.200-207. - M. D. Smith and Chris A. Mack, “Examination of a simplified reaction-diffusion model for post exposure bake of chemically amplified resists”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4345 (2001) pp.1022-1036. - M. D. Smith, Chris A. Mack, and J. S. Petersen, “Modeling the impact of thermal history during post exposure bake on the lithographic performance of chemically amplified resists”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4345 (2001) pp.1013-1021. - G. M. Schmid, M. D. Smith, Chris A. Mack, V. K. Singh, S. D. Burns, and C. G. Willson, “Understanding Molecular Level Effects During Post Exposure Processing”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4345 (2001) pp.1037-1047. - Z. M. Ma and Chris A. Mack, “Impact of Illumination Coherence and Polarization on the Imaging of Attenuated Phase Shift Masks”,
*Optical Microlithography XIV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4346 (2001) pp. 1522-1532. - Will Conley, Cesar Garza, Mircea Dusa, Robert Socha, Joseph Bendik, and Chris A. Mack, "The MEEF Shall Inherit the Earth",
*Optical Microlithography XIV, Proc.,*SPIE Vol. 4346 (2001) pp. 251-258. - S. Jug, R. Huang, J. Byers, Chris A. Mack, “Automatic Calibration of Lithography Simulation Parameters”,
*Lithography for Semiconductor Manufacturing, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4404 (2001). - M. E. Preil and Chris A. Mack, “Measurement and Analysis of Reticle and Wafer Level Contributions to Total CD Variation”,
*Lithography for Semiconductor Manufacturing, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4404 (2001) pp. 144-152. - S. Robertson, Chris A. Mack, and M. Maslow “Towards a Universal Resist Dissolution Model for Lithography Simulation”,
*Lithography for Semiconductor Manufacturing, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4404 (2001) pp. 111-122. - Chris A. Mack, “Electron Beam Lithography Simulation for Mask Making, Part VI: Comparison of 10 and 50 kV GHOST Proximity Effect Correction”,
*Photomask and X-Ray Mask Technology VIII, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4409 (2001) pp. 194-203. - Chris A. Mack, “Lithographic Simulation: A Review”,
*Lithographic and Micromachining Techniques for Optical Component Fabrication, Proc.,*SPIE Vol. 4440 (2001) pp. 59-72. - Sergey Babin, Igor Yu. Kuzmin and Chris A. Mack, “Comprehensive Simulation of Electron-beam Lithography Processes Using PROLITH 3/D and TEMPTATION Software Tools”,
*Micro- and Nano-Engineering 2001, Proc.*, and*MicroElectronic Engineering,*Volumes 57-58 (September 2001) pp. 343-348. - J. Byers, C. Mack, R. Huang, S. Jug, “Automatic Calibration of Lithography Simulation Parameters Using Multiple Data Sets”,
*Micro- and Nano-Engineering 2001, Proc.*, and*MicroElectronic Engineering,*Volumes 61-62 (July 2002) pp. 89-95. - Chris A. Mack, “Impact of Graybeam Method of Virtual Address Reduction on Image Quality”,
*21st Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology*,*Proc*., SPIE Vol. 4562 (2001) pp. 537-544. - P. Rhyins, M. Fritze, D. Chan, C. Carney, B.A. Blachowicz, M. Vieira, C. Mack, “Characterization of Quartz Etched PSM Masks for KrF Lithography at the 100 nm Node”,
*21st Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology*,*Proc*., SPIE Vol. 4562 (2001) pp. 486-495. - Stewart A. Robertson, Doris Kang, Steven D. Tye, Steven G. Hansen, Anita Fumar-Pici, Tsann-Bim Chiou, Jeffery D. Byers, Chris A. Mack, and Mark D. Smith, “Calibration of ESCAP Resist Simulation Parameters from Consideration of Printed CD Pitch Bias, CD Measurement Offset and Wafer Thermal History”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIX*,*Proc.,*SPIE Vol. 4690 (2002) pp.952-962. - Chris A. Mack, “Theoretical Analysis of the Potential for Maskless Lithography”,
*Optical Microlithography XV**, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 4691 (2002) pp. 98-106. - Robert Jones, Chris A. Mack, and Jeffrey Byers, “Etch Simulations for Lithography Engineers”,
*Optical Microlithography XV, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 4691 (2002) pp. 1232-1242. - Mark D. Smith, Jeffrey D. Byers, Chris A. Mack, “A Comparison Between the Process Windows Calculated with Full and Simplified Resist Models
*”, Optical Microlithography XV, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 4691 (2002) pp. 1199-1210. - Jeffrey D. Byers, Mark D. Smith, and Chris A. Mack, “3D Lumped Parameter Model for Lithographic Simulations”,
*Optical Microlithography XV, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 4691 (2002) pp.125-137. - Chris A. Mack, “Characterizing the Process Window of a Double Exposure Dark Field Alternating Phase Shift Mask”,
*Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics, Proc*, SPIE Vol. 4692 (2002) pp. 454-464. - Dan Bald, Saghir Munir, Barry Lieberman, William H. Howard, Chris A. Mack, “PRIMADONNA: A System for Automated Defect Disposition of Production Masks Using Wafer Lithography Simulation”,
*22 nd Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, Proc.,*SPIE Vol. 4889 (2002) pp. 263-270. - Chris A. Mack, “Measuring and Modeling Flare in Optical Lithography”,
*Arch Microlithography Symposium, Interface 2002, Proc.*(2002). - Chris A. Mack and Jeffrey D. Byers, “Improved Model for Focus-Exposure Data Analysis”,
*Metrology, Inspection and Process Control XVII, Proc.,*SPIE Vol. 5038 (2003) pp. 396-405. - Jeffrey D. Byers, Mark D. Smith, Chris A. Mack, and John Biafore, “Modeling Soft Bake Effects in Chemically Amplified Resists”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XX, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 5039 (2003) pp. 1143-1154. - Chris A. Mack, “The End of the Semiconductor Industry as We Know It”,
*Optical Microlithography XVI*, Plenary Address, SPIE Vol. 5040 (2003) pp. xxi-xxxi. - Mark D. Smith and Chris A. Mack, “Process Sensitivity and Optimization with Full and Simplified Resist Models”,
*Optical Microlithography XVI, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 5040 (2003) pp.1509-1520. - Mark D. Smith and Chris A. Mack, “Methods for Benchmarking Photolithography Simulators”,
*Optical Microlithography XVI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 5040 (2003) pp. 57-68. - Chris A. Mack, “Measuring and Modeling Flare in Optical Lithography”,
*Optical Microlithography XVI, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 5040 (2003) pp. 151-161. - H. I. Garcia, W. W. Volk, S. Watson, C. Hess, C. Aquino, J. Wiley, Chris A. Mack, “New die-to-database inspection algorithm for inspection of 90-nm node reticles”,
*Photomask and Next-Generation Lithography Mask Technology, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 5130 (2003) pp. 364-374. - W. H. Broadbent, J. N. Wiley, Z. K. Saidin, S. G. Watson, D. S. Alles, L. S. Zurbrick, Chris A. Mack, “Results from a new reticle defect inspection platform”,
*23rd Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 5256 (2003) pp. 474-488. - Chris A. Mack, “The New, New Limits of Optical Lithography”,
*Emerging Lithographic Technologies VIII, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 5374 (2004) pp. 1-8. - M. D. Smith, J. D. Byers, and Chris A. Mack, “The Lithographic Impact of Resist Model Parameters”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXI, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 5376 (2004) pp. 322-332. - Chris A. Mack and J. D. Byers, “Exploring the Capabilities of Immersion Lithography Through Simulation”,
*Optical Microlithography XVII, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 5377 (2004) pp. 428-441. - M. D. Smith, J. D. Byers, and Chris A. Mack, “Methods for Benchmarking Photolithography Simulators, Part II”,
*Optical Microlithography XVII, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 5377 (2004) pp.1475-1486. - J. D. Byers, M. D. Smith, and Chris A. Mack, “Lumped Parameter Model for Chemically Amplified Resists”,
*Optical Microlithography XVII, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 5377 (2004) pp. 1462-1474. - W. H. Broadbent, J. N. Wiley, Z. K. Saidin, S. G. Watson, D. S. Alles, L. S. Zurbrick, Chris A. Mack, “Results from a new die-to-database reticle inspection platform”,
*Photomask and Next-Generation Lithography Mask Technology, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 5446 (2004) pp. 265-278. - M. D. Smith, J. D. Byers, and Chris A. Mack, “The Impact of Mask Topography on Binary Reticles at the 65nm Node”,
*24th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 5567 (2004) pp. 416-424. - Chris A. Mack, “Lithography Simulation in Semiconductor Manufacturing”,
*Photonics Asia, Advanced Microlithography Technologies, Proc.,*SPIE Vol. 5645 (2004) pp. 63-83. - Chris A. Mack, “Thirty Years of Lithography Simulation”,
*Optical Microlithography XVIII, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 5754 (2005), pp. 1-12, and “Charting the Future (and Remembering the Past) of Optical Lithography Simulation”,*Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology*, Vol. B 23, No. 6 (Nov / Dec 2005) pp. 2601-2606. - Mark D. Smith, Trey Graves, Jeffrey D. Byers, Chris A. Mack, “Methods for Benchmarking Photolithography Simulators: Part III”,
*Optical Microlithography XVII, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 5754 (2005) pp. 969-977. - W. Howard, J. T. Azpiroz, Y. Xiong, C. Mack, G. Verma, W. Volk, H. Lehon, Y. Deng, R. Shi, J. Culp, S. Mansfield, “Inspection of integrated circuit databases through reticle and wafer simulation: an integrated approach to design for manufacturing (DFM)”,
*Design and Process Integration for Microelectronic Manufacturing III, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 5756 (2005) pp. 61-72. - W. B. Howard and Chris A. Mack, “Accurate aerial image simulation using high-resolution reticle inspection images”,
*21st European Mask and Lithography Conference, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 5835 (2005) pp. 89-98. - Chris A. Mack, “The Causes of Horizontal-Vertical (H-V) Bias in Optical Lithography”,
*FujiFilm Microlithography Symposium, Interface 2005, Proc.*, (2005). - Chris A. Mack, Mark D. Smith, Trey Graves, “The impact of attenuated phase shift mask topography on hyper-NA lithography”,
*25th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 5992 (2005) p. 59920Z. - Chris A. Mack, “Accuracy, speed, new physical phenomena: The future of litho simulation”,
*Solid State Technology*, Vol. 49, No. 2 (February, 2006) pp. 28-40. - Trey Graves, Mark D. Smith, Chris A. Mack, “Methods for Benchmarking Photolithography Simulators: Part IV”,
*Optical Microlithography XIX, Proc*., SPIE Vol. 6154 (2006) p. 61542X. - P. Yu, D. Z. Pan, Chris A. Mack, “Fast lithography simulation under focus variations for OPC and layout optimizations",
*Design and Process Integration for Microelectronic Manufacturing IV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 6156, (2006) p. 615618. - Chris A. Mack, D. Harrison, C. Rivas, and P. Walsh, “Impact of thin film metrology on the lithographic performance of 193nm bottom antireflective coatings”,
*Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXI*,*Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 6518 (2007) p. 65181C. - John J. Biafore, Chris A. Mack, Stewart A. Robertson, Mark D. Smith, and Sanjay Kapasi, “The Causes of Horizontal-Vertical (H-V) Bias in Optical Lithography: Dipole Source Errors”,
*Optical Microlithography XX*, Proc., SPIE Vol. 6520 (2007) p. 65203V. - Chris A. Mack, “Improved Methods for Lithography Model Calibration”,
*Photomask and Next-Generation Lithography Mask Technology XIV, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 6607 (2007) p*.*66071D. - Chris A. Mack, “The Future of Semiconductor Lithography: After Optical, What Next?”,
*Future Fab International*, Vol. 23 (July 9, 2007). - Chris A. Mack, “Fab Future”,
*SPIE Professional*(Oct. 2008) pp. 10-11. - Chris A. Mack, “Seeing Double”,
*IEEE Spectrum*(Nov. 2008) pp. 46-51. - S. Chauhan, M. Somervell, S. Scheer, C. Mack, R. T. Bonnecaze, and C. G. Willson, “Polymer Dissolution Model: An Energy Adaptation of the Critical Ionization Theory”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXVI*,*Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 7273 (2009) p. 727336. - Chris A. Mack, “Stochastic approach to modeling photoresist development”,
*Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology*, Vol. B27, No. 3 (May/Jun. 2009) pp. 1122-1128. - Chris A. Mack, “Stochastic Modeling in Lithography: Autocorrelation Behavior of Catalytic Reaction-Diffusion Systems”,
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Apr-Jun 2009) p. 029701. - Chris A. Mack, “Stochastic Modeling in Lithography: The Use of Dynamical Scaling in Photoresist Development”,
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2009) p. 033001. - Chris A. Mack, “Impact of mask roughness on wafer line-edge roughness”,
*BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 7488 (2009) p. 748828. - Chris A. Mack, “Line-Edge Roughness and the Ultimate Limits of Lithography”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXVII*,*Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 7639 (2010), p. 763931. - Siddharth Chauhan, Mark Somervell, Michael Carcasi, Steven Scheer, Roger T. Bonnecaze, Chris A. Mack, and C. Grant Willson, “Particle Generation during the Photoresist Dissolution”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXVII*,*Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 7639 (2010) p. 763933. - Chris A. Mack, “A Simple Model of Line-Edge Roughness”,
*Future Fab International*, Vol 34 (July 14, 2010). - Chris A. Mack, “Stochastic modeling of photoresist development in two and three dimensions”,
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Oct-Dec, 2010) p. 041202. - Chris A. Mack, “A New Fast Resist Model: the Gaussian LPM”,
*Design for Manufacturability through Design-Process Integration V*,*Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 7974 (2011). - Chris A. Mack, John J. Biafore, and Mark D. Smith, “Stochastic Acid-Base Quenching in Chemically Amplified Photoresists: A Simulation Study”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXVIII*,*Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 7972 (2011). - Chris A. Mack, “Fifty Years of Moore’s Law”,
*IEEE Transactions On Semiconductor Manufacturing*, Vol. 24, No. 2 (May, 2011) pp. 202-207. - Chris A. Mack, James W. Thackeray, John J. Biafore, and Mark D. Smith, “Stochastic Exposure Kinetics of EUV Photoresists: A Simulation Study”,
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 10, No. 3 (Jul-Sep, 2011) p. 033019. - Chris A. Mack, "Analytic form for the power spectral density in one, two, and three dimensions”,
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Oct-Dec, 2011) p. 040501. - Prateek Mehrotra, Chris A. Mack, Richard J. Blaikie, “A solid immersion interference lithography system for imaging ultra-high numerical apertures with high-aspect ratios in photoresist using resonant enhancement from effective gain media”,
*Optical Microlithography XX*, Proc., SPIE Vol. 8326 (2012) p. 83260Z. - Chris A. Mack, “Correlated surface roughening during photoresist development”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIX*,*Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 8325 (2012) p. 83250I. - Chris A. Mack, “Defining and measuring development rates for a stochastic resist”,
*Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIX*,*Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 8325 (2012) p. 83251K. - Chris A. Mack, “Reaction-diffusion power spectral density”,
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Oct-Dec, 2012) p. 043007. - Chris A. Mack, “Generating random rough edges, surfaces, and volumes”,
*Applied Optics*, Vol. 52, No. 7 (1 March 2013) pp. 1472-1480. - Chris A. Mack, “Systematic Errors in the Measurement of Power Spectral Density”,
*Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXVII, Proc*. SPIE Vol. 8681 (2013). - Chris A. Mack, “Defining and measuring development rates for a stochastic resist: a simulation study”,
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Jul-Sep, 2013) p. 033006. - Chris A. Mack, “Systematic Errors in the Measurement of Power Spectral Density”,
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Jul-Sep, 2013) p. 033016. - Chris A. Mack, John J. Biafore, and Mark D. Smith, “Stochastic Exposure Kinetics of Extreme Utraviolet Photoresists: Trapping Model”,
*Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B*, Vol. 31, No. 6 (Nov/Dec, 2013) p. 06F603-1. - Siddharth Chauhan, et al., “Mesoscale modeling: a study of particle generation and line-edge roughness”,
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Jan–Mar, 2014) p. 013012. - Benjamin D. Bunday and Chris A. Mack, "Influence of Metrology Error in Measurement of Line Edge Roughness Power Spectral Density", Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXVIII, Proc., SPIE Vol. 9050 (2014) p. 90500G.
- Chris A. Mack, “Analytical Expression for Impact of Linewidth Roughness on Critical Dimension Uniformity”,
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 13, No. 2 (Apr-Jun, 2014) p. 020501. - Chris A. Mack, "Line-Edge Roughness and the Impact of Stochastic Processes on Lithography Scaling for Moore’s Law",
*Photonic Innovations and Solutions for Complex Environments and Systems (PISCES) II, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 9189, (2014) p. 91890D. - Chris A. Mack and Benjamin D. Bunday, "Analytical Linescan Model for SEM Metrology",
*Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXIX, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 9424 (2015) p. 94240F. - Chris A. Mack, “The Multiple Lives of Moore’s Law",
*IEEE Spectrum*, pp. 30-37 (Apr. 2015). - Chris A. Mack, "More systematic errors in the measurement of power spectral density",
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Jul-Sep, 2015) p. 033502. - Chris A. Mack, "Understanding the efficacy of linewidth roughness post-processing",
*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS*, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Jul-Sep, 2015) p. 033503. - Chris A. Mack and Benjamin D. Bunday, “Improvements to the Analytical Linescan Model for SEM Metrology”,
*Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXX, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 9778 (2016). - Chris A. Mack, Ananthan Raghunathan, John Sturtevant, Yunfei Deng, Christian Zuniga, Kostas Adam, “Modeling Metrology for Calibration of OPC Models”,
*Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXX, Proc.*, SPIE Vol. 9778 (2016). - Chris A. Mack, "Biases and uncertainties in the use of autocovariance and height–height covariance
functions to characterize roughness",
*Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B*, Vol. 34, No. 6 (Nov/Dec, 2016) p. 06K701.

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